In the post-cold war era, otherwise known as Pax Americana, geostrategic risks were considered a thing of the past. Francis Fukuyama’s best seller “The End of History” captured the times. U.S.-Russian relations seemed destined for a permanent rapprochement, while the formerly communist countries of Eastern Europe modernized their economies and joined western institutions such as the EU and NATO. Meanwhile, China’s opening to the world was continuing apace.
But this benign international environment ended with a thud over the last few years, as geostrategic issues again dominate the headlines. Russia’s relationship with the West soured quickly with the former’s invasion of Ukraine and annexation of Crimea. And China seems determined to reassert itself both regionally and globally, challenging U.S. hegemony in both spheres. Fraught relations with Russia and China are tectonic shocks to the international landscape, making benign neglect of geostrategic risks untenable.